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A) Hyaluronic Acid References

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  5. McKee CM, Penno MB, Cowman M, et al. Hyaluronan (HA) fragments induce chemokine gene expression in alveolar macrophages. The role of HA size and CD44. J Clin Invest.1996;98(10):2403-13.
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B) Vitamin-C References

1. Kivirikko KI, Myllyla R. Post-translational processing of procollagens. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1985;460:187-201.

2. Myllyla R, Majamaa K, Gunzler V, Hanauske-Abel HM, Kivirikko KI. Ascorbate is consumed stoichiometrically in the uncoupled reactions catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl hydroxylase. J Biol Chem. 1984 May 10;259(9):5403-5.

3. Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999 Oct;125(10):1091-8.

4. Humbert PG, Haftek M, Creidi P, et al. Topical ascorbic acid on photoaged skin. Clinical, topographical and ultrastructural evaluation: double-blind study vs. placebo. Exp Dermatol. 2003 Jun;12(3):237-44.

5. Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF. Double-blind, half-face study comparing topical vitamin C and vehicle for rejuvenation of photodamage. Dermatol Surg. 2002 Mar;28(3):231-6.

6. Farris PK. Topical vitamin C: a useful agent for treating photoaging and other dermatologic conditions. Dermatol Surg. 2005 Jul;31(7 Pt 2):814-7.

7. Rhie G, Shin MH, Seo JY, et al. Aging- and photoaging-dependent changes of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in the epidermis and dermis of human skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Nov;117(5):1212-7.

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13. Miyachi Y, Ishikawa O. Dermal connective tissue metabolism in photoageing. Australas J Dermatol. 1998 Feb;39(1):19-23.

14. Gilchrest BA. Skin aging 2003: recent advances and current concepts. Cutis. 2003 Sep;72(3 Suppl):5-10.

15. Geesin JC, Gordon JS, Berg RA. Regulation of collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts by the sodium and magnesium salts of ascorbyl-2-phosphate. Skin Pharmacol. 1993;6(1):65-71.

16. Hata R, Senoo H. L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate stimulates collagen accumulation, cell proliferation, and formation of a three-dimensional tissuelike substance by skin fibroblasts. J Cell Physiol. 1989 Jan;138(1):8-16.

17. Kurata S, Hata R. Epidermal growth factor inhibits transcription of type I collagen genes and production of type I collagen in cultured human skin fibroblasts in the presence and absence of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, a long-acting vitamin C derivative. J Biol Chem. 1991 May 25;266(15):9997-10003.

18. Tajima S, Pinnell SR. Ascorbic acid preferentially enhances type I and III collagen gene transcription in human skin fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci. 1996 Mar;11(3):250-3.

19. Nusgens BV, Humbert P, Rougier A, et al. Topically applied vitamin C enhances the mRNA level of collagens I and III, their processing enzymes and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 in the human dermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2001 Jun;116(6):853-9.

20. Sauermann K, Jaspers S, Koop U, Wenck H. Topically applied vitamin C increases the density of dermal papillae in aged human skin. BMC Dermatol. 2004 Sep 29;4(1):13.

21. Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D, Epstein W, Packer L. Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1994 Jan;102(1):122-4.

22. May JM, Qu ZC, Mendiratta S. Protection and recycling of alpha-tocopherol in human erythrocytes by intracellular ascorbic acid. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 Jan 15;349(2):281-9.

23. Raschke T, Koop U, Dusing HJ, et al. Topical activity of ascorbic acid: from in vitro optimization to in vivo efficacy. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 Jul;17(4):200-6.

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25. Klock J, Ikeno H, Ohmori K, et al. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate shows in vitro and in vivo efficacy in the prevention and treatment of acne vulgaris. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2005 Jun;27(3):171-6.

26. Kameyama K, Sakai C, Kondoh S, et al. Inhibitory effect of magnesium L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (VC-PMG) on melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996 Jan 34(1):29-33.

27. McKay DL, Blumberg JB. A review of the bioactivity of South African herbal teas: rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia). Phytother Res. 2007 Jan;21(1):1-16.

28. Ojo OO, Ladeji O, Nadro MS. Studies of the antioxidative effects of green and black tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts in rats. J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):345-9.

29. Gawlik M, Czajka A. The effect of green, black and white tea on the level of alpha and gamma tocopherols in free radical-induced oxidative damage of human red blood cells. Acta Pol Pharm. 2007 Mar;64(2):159-64.

30. Katiyar SK. Skin photoprotection by green tea: antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2003 Sep;3(3):234-42.

31. du Toit R, Volsteedt Y, Apostolides Z. Comparison of the antioxidant content of fruits, vegetables and teas measured as vitamin C equivalents. Toxicology. 2001 Sep 14;166(1-2):63-9.

32. Wha KS, Lee IW, Cho HJ, et al. Fibroblasts and ascorbate regulate epidermalization in reconstructed human epidermis. J Dermatol Sci. 2002 Dec;30(3):215-23.

C) Marine Phytoplankton References

1. Ruocco N., Costantini S., Guariniello S., Costantini M. Polysaccharides from the marine environment with pharmacological, cosmeceutical and nutraceutical potential. Molecules. 2016;21:551. doi: 10.3390/molecules21050551. 

2. Thomas N.V., Kim S.K. Beneficial effects of marine algal compounds in cosmeceuticals. Mar. Drugs. 2013;11:146–164. doi: 10.3390/md11010146. 

3. Molinski T.F., Dalisay D.S., Lievens S.L., Saludes J.P. Drug development from marine natural products. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2009;8:69–85. doi: 10.1038/nrd2487. 

4. Munro M.H., Blunt J.W., Dumdei E.J., Hickford S.J., Lill R.E., Li S., Battershill C.N., Duckworth A.R. The discovery and development of marine compounds with pharmaceutical potential. J. Biotechnol. 1999;70:15–25. doi: 10.1016/S0168-1656(99)00052-8. 

5. Snelgrove P.V. An Ocean of Discovery: Biodiversity Beyond the Census of Marine Life. Planta Med. 2016;82:790–799. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-103934

6. Wang H.M.D., Chen C.C., Huynh P., Chang J.S. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics. Bioresour. Technol. 2015;184:355–362. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.12.001.

7. Zia K.M., Tabasum S., Nasif M., Sultan N., Aslam N., Noreen A., Zuber M. A review on synthesis, properties and applications of natural polymer based carrageenan blends and composites. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2016;96:282–301. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.11.095. 

8. De Jesus Raposo M.F., de Morais A.M., de Morais R.M. Marine polysaccharides from algae with potential biomedical applications. Mar. Drugs. 2015;13:2967–3028. doi: 10.3390/md13052967

9. Hamed I., Ozogul F., Ozogul Y., Regenstein J.M. Marine bioactive compounds and their health benefits: A Review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2015;14:446–465. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12136. 

10. Kang H.K., Seo C.H., Park Y. The effects of marine carbohydrates and glycosylated compounds on human health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015;16:6018–6056. doi: 10.3390/ijms16036018

11. Wei N., Quarterman J., Jin Y.S. Marine macroalgae: An untapped resource for producing fuels and chemicals. Trends Biotechnol. 2013;31:70–77. doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2012.10.009.

12. Laurienzo P. Marine polysaccharides in pharmaceutical applications: An Overview. Mar. Drugs. 2010;8:2435–2465. doi: 10.3390/md8092435. 

13. Cunha L., Grenha A. Sulfated seaweed polysaccharides as multifunctional materials in drug delivery applications. Mar. Drugs. 2016;14:42. doi: 10.3390/md14030042

14. Ahmed A.B., Adel M., Karimi P., Peidayesh M. Pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and traditional applications of marine carbohydrates. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 2014;73:197–220. 

15. Melo M.R.S., Feitosa J.P.A., Freitas A.L.P., de Paula R.C.M. Isolation and characterization of soluble sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. Carbohydr. Polym. 2002;49:491–498. doi: 10.1016/S0144-8617(02)00006-1. 

16. Cha S.H., Ko S.C., Kim D., Jeon Y.J. Screening of marine algae for potential tyrosinase inhibitor: Those inhibitors reduced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in zebrafish. J. Dermatol. 2011;38:343–352. doi: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2010.00983.x. 

17. Heo S.J., Ko S.C., Kang S.M., Cha S.H., Lee S.H., Kang D.H., Jung W.K., Affan A., Oh C., Jeon Y.J. Inhibitory effect of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol on melanogenesis and its protective effect against UV-B radiation-induced cell damage. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2010;48:1355–1361. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.03.001.

18. Quah C.C., Kim K.H., Lau M.S., Kim W.R., Cheah S.H., Gundamaraju R. Pigmentation and dermal conservative effects of the astonishing algae Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis on guinea pigs, human epidermal melanocytes (HEM) and Chang cells. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 2014;11:77–83. doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v11i4.13.

19. Murugan K., Iyer V.V. Differential growth inhibition of cancer cell lines and antioxidant activity of extracts of red, brown, and green marine algae. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 2013;49:324–334. doi: 10.1007/s11626-013-9603-7. 

20. Fujimura T., Tsukahara K., Moriwaki S., Kitahara T., Sano T., Takema Y. Treatment of human skin with an extract of Fucus vesiculosus changes its thickness and mechanical properties. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2002;53:1–9. 

21. Grether-Beck S., Muhlberg K., Brenden H., Felsner I., Brynjolfsdottir A., Einarsson S., Krutmann J. Bioactive molecules from the Blue Lagoon: In vitro and in vivo assessment of silica mud and microalgae extracts for their effects on skin barrier function and prevention of skin ageing. Exp. Dermatol. 2008;17:771–779. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2007.00693.x. 

22. Buono S., Langellotti A.L., Martello A., Bimonte M., Tito A., Carola A., Apone F., Colucci G., Fogliano V. Biological activities of dermatological interest by the water extract of the microalga Botryococcus braunii. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2012;304:755–764. doi: 10.1007/s00403-012-1250-4.

23. Kang H., Lee C.H., Kim J.R., Kwon J.Y., Seo S.G., Han J.G., Kim B.G., Kim J.E., Lee K.W. Chlorella vulgaris attenuates dermatophagoides Farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015;16:21021–21034. doi: 10.3390/ijms160921021.

24. Hidalgo-Lucas S., Bisson J.F., Duffaud A., Nejdi A., Guerin-Deremaux L., Baert B., Saniez-Degrave M.H., Rozan P. Benefits of oral and topical administration of ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. on skin inflammation and wound healing in mice. Anti-Inflamm. Anti-Allergy Agents Med. Chem. 2014;13:93–102. doi: 10.2174/1871523013666140626154458. 

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26. Hidalgo-Lucas S., Rozan P., Guerin-Deremaux L., Violle N., Baert B., Saniez-Degrave M.H., Bisson J.F. Oral and topical administration of ROQUETTE Schizochytrium sp. alleviate skin inflammation and improve wound healing in mice. Anti-Inflamm. Anti-Allergy Agents Med. Chem. 2015;13:154–164. doi: 10.2174/1871523013666141031124517. 

27. Kim S., You D.H., Han T., Choi E.M. Modulation of viability and apoptosis of UVB-exposed human keratinocyte HaCaT cells by aqueous methanol extract of laver (Porphyra yezoensis) J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2014;141:301–307. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.10.012.

28. Mercurio D.G., Wagemaker T.A.L., Alves V.M., Benevenuto C.G., Gaspar L.R., Campos P.M. In vivo photoprotective effects of cosmetic formulations containing UV filters, vitamins, Ginkgo biloba and red algae extracts. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2015;153:121–126. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.09.016. 

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38. Wang J., Zhang Q., Zhang Z., Li Z. Antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide fractions extracted from Laminaria japonica. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2008;42:127–132. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2007.10.003. 

39. Wang J., Wang F., Zhang Q.B., Zhang Z.S., Shi X.L., Li P.C. Synthesized different derivatives of low molecular fucoidan extracted from Laminaria japonica and their potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2009;44:379–384. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2009.02.001.

40. Marudhupandi T., Kumar T.T., Senthil S.L., Devi K.N. In vitro antioxidant properties of fucoidan fractions from Sargassum tenerrimum. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2014;17:402–407. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2014.402.407. 

41. Moon H.J., Lee S.R., Shim S.N., Jeong S.H., Stonik V.A., Rasskazov V.A., Zvyagintseva T., Lee Y.H. Fucoidan inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression in human skin fibroblasts. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2008;31:284–289. doi: 10.1248/bpb.31.284. 

42. Moon H.J., Lee S.H., Ku M.J., Yu B.C., Jeon M.J., Jeong S.H., Stonik V.A., Zvyagintseva T.N., Ermakova S.P., Lee Y.H. Fucoidan inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 promoter expression and down regulation of type I procollagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. Eur. J. Dermatol. 2009;19:129–134. 

43. Moon H.J., Park K.S., Ku M.J., Lee M.S., Jeong S.H., Imbs T.I., Zvyagintseva T.N., Ermakova S.P., Lee Y.H. Effect of Costaria costata fucoidan on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 promoter, mRNA, and protein. J. Nat. Prod. 2009;72:1731–1734. doi: 10.1021/np800797v.

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45. Senni K., Gueniche F., Foucault-Bertaud A., Igondjo-Tchen S., Fioretti F., Colliec-Jouault S., Durand P., Guezennec J., Godeau G., Letourneur D. Fucoidan a sulfated polysaccharide from brown algae is a potent modulator of connective tissue proteolysis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2006;445:56–64. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2005.11.001.

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47. Iwamoto K., Hiragun T., Takahagi S., Yanase Y., Morioke S., Mihara S., Kameyoshi Y., Hide M. Fucoidan suppresses IgE production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with atopic dermatitis. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2011;303:425–431. doi: 10.1007/s00403-010-1115-7.

48. Wang J., Jin W., Hou Y., Niu X., Zhang H., Zhang Q. Chemical composition and moisture-absorption/retention ability of polysaccharides extracted from five algae. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2013;57:26–29. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.03.001. 

49. Lee N.Y., Ermakova S.P., Choi H.K., Kusaykin M.I., Shevchenko N.M., Zvyagintseva T.N., Choi H.S. Fucoidan from Laminaria cichorioides inhibits AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 cells. Mol. Carcinog. 2008;47:629–637. doi: 10.1002/mc.20428. 

50. Li J., Xie L., Qin Y., Liang W.H., Mo M.Q., Liu S.L., Liang F., Wang Y., Tan W., Liang Y. Effect of laminarin polysaccharide on activity of matrix metalloproteinase in photoaging skin. China J. Chin. Mater. Med. 2013;38:2370–2373. 

51. Ayoub A., Pereira J.M., Rioux L.E., Turgeon S.L., Beaulieu M., Moulin V.J. Role of seaweed laminaran from Saccharina longicruris on matrix deposition during dermal tissue-engineered production. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2015;75:13–20. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.01.017.

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